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Our publications on application of the acoustic emission method
Our portfolio

List of 99 publications in English, in which our clients describe examples of the use of our company's products (A-Line 32D/PCI/DDM Lel/DS, Uniscope, SHM systems A-Line):








A. A. Morozov, V. V. Muraviev (Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University, Izhevsk). Acoustic emission of 09G2S low-alloy pipe steel samples containing a welded seam (Planning of the experiment). Информационные технологии в науке, промышленности и образовании. Молодежный научный форум : Сборник трудов Всероссийской научно-технической конференции, Ижевск, 25–26 мая 2023 года. Ижевск: Ижевский государственный технический университет имени М.Т. Калашникова, 2023. P. 520-524. http://itnpo.istu.ru/docs/Конференция_ИТНПО _2023.pdf (full text). eLibrary ID: 54917253 (full text)

Abstract Currently, acoustic emission is quite an effective method of nondestructive testing to search for developing defects, but its main drawback is the strict requirements to the equipment and the place of control. This article describes the preparation for an acoustic emission experiment with the aim of its further implementation.


E.A. Burda, G.V. Zusman, I.S. Kudryavtseva, A.P. Naumenko (Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Education, Omsk State Technical University, Omsk; Vibration Measurement Solutions, Inc., Houston, TX, USA). An Overview of Vibration Analysis Techniques for the Fault Diagnostics of Rolling Bearings in Machinery. Shock and Vibration. Vol. 2022, Article ID 6136231. 2022. DOI: 10.1155/2022/6136231 (full text). https://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2022/6136231/ (full text). eLibrary ID: 54194962

Abstract The perfection of methods and means of nondestructive testing and technical diagnostics is determined by the level of development of science and modern industrial technologies. The desire to develop technologies determines the extent and degree to which the monitoring of the state of substances, materials, products—and now the state of the natural environment—are becoming increasingly relevant. The methods and means of condition monitoring and the diagnostics of rolling bearings have been in development for more than 60 years. Despite some successes, however, there is currently no information concerning the veracity of means to completely resolve the bearing diagnostics problem. This paper provides a fairly brief overview of methods and means for monitoring the condition and diagnosis of rolling bearings and also describes one of the newest trends in this field—the analysis of the properties of the characteristic function of vibroacoustic (VA) signals in order to determine the condition of the objects of control and, in particular, rolling bearings. It is shown that the magnitude of the module and the area of the characteristic function of the VA signal are very effective criteria for assessing the technical condition of a rolling bearing.


Marchenkov A., Zhgut D., Moskovskaya D., Kulikova E., Vasiliev I., Chernov D., Mishchenko I. (Institute of Information Technologies and Computer Science, Moscow Power Engineering Institute; Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences). Estimation of acoustic source positioning error determined by one-dimensional linear location technique. Applied Sciences (Switzerland). 2022. Vol. 12. No 1. DOI 10.3390/app12010224. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/12/1/224 (full text). eLibrary ID: 47546490

Abstract The one-dimensional (1D) linear location technique has been considered as one of the methods for determining the position of acoustic emission (AE) sources in metallic objects. However, this approach does not take into account the heterogeneity of materials and that leads to poor accuracy of AE sources localization. To estimate the positioning error of the linear location technique which is typically used to determine the AE source location a new approach based on the combination of experimental and simulation methods is proposed. This approach for error estimation contains a finite element model construction of the AE signals localization. The model consists of transmitting and receiving transducers mounted on the test object, the frequency response of which selected close to the characteristics of acoustic emission transducers applied in the preliminary experiments. The application of the approach in current research showed that a reduced positioning error on a flat steel plate reaches 15%. The proposed technique can be used to optimize the number of preliminary tests required to calculate the reduced error of the 1D linear location technique applied for the AE sources localization during the inspection of the structure


N. A. Makhutov, I. E. Vasil’ev, D. V. Chernov, V. I. Ivanov, E. V. Terent’ev (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Scientific Research Institute of Introscopy (ZAO NIIIN MNPO Spektr), Moscow; Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Moscow). Adaptation of Methodology for Monitoring Damage Kinetics and Assessing Load-Bearing Capacity in Relation to Steel Products. Russ J Nondestruct Test 58, 800–813 (2022). DOI: 10.1134/S1061830922090078

Abstract The methodology for monitoring damage kinetics and assessing the bearing capacity of structures using acoustic emission (AE), developed in relation to products made of polymer composite materials (PCM), has been adapted to the evolution of structural steel failure. Due to the higher plasticity of structural steels compared to PCMs, the relative energy (Ep) of AE pulses generated during the rupture of structural bonds at the same scale level turned out to be approximately 5–15 dB lower than in composites. Therefore, during the AE diagnostics of structural steel products, the following boundaries of the separation of AE pulses into energy clusters are established: Ep < 80 dB for the low cluster, Ep = 80–100 dB for the medium cluster, and Ep > 100 dB for the high cluster. We consider testing of the methodology for monitoring the kinetics of damage and assessing the load-bearing capacity of products in the loading mode during static and cyclic tests of samples made of 08Kh18N10T steel with an edge-cut notch.

Makhutov N.A., Matvienko Y.G., Vasil'ev I.E., Chernov D.V., Ivanov V.I. (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Research Institute of Introscopy MNPO Spektr, Moscow). Instruments and Experimental Techniques. 2022. Vol. 65, No. 2. P. 305-313. DOI: 10.1134/S0020441222020014. eLibrary ID: 48428183

AbstractExperiments on the fracture testing of reinforcing fibers of composite materials and specimens of unidirectional laminates were performed using acoustic-emission diagnostics. The results were used to establish the correspondence between the fractures in the structure of polymer composite materials (PCMs) at the micro-, meso-, and macroscale levels and the acoustic emission (AE) pulses recorded in this process and their energy and temporal parameters. The establishment of such phenomenological dependences makes it possible to carry out selection of the registered AE pulses, combining them into energy clusters of the lower (L), medium (M), and upper (U) levels, which correspond to micro-, meso-, and macroscale fractures, respectively, in the composite-material structure. By controlling the redistribution of the weight content of AE pulses (Wi) in the energy clusters, whose total level is WL + WM + WU = 100%, in the product loading process, the damage accumulation in the structure of the PCM package at different scale levels is monitored by evaluating the residual structural strength via comparison of the current values of the parameters Wi with the thresholds [Wi] that are registered upon material failure.


Novikov E.A., Klementev E.A. Acoustic-emission method for controlling changes in the stability of a soil massif treated with hardening substances. Russian patent № 2775159. eLibrary ID: 49200040

Abstract Field: engineering and geological surveys. Substance: invention relates to engineering and geological surveys, in particular to methods for determining changes in the stability of soil foundations subjected to chemical-physical fixing. In the claimed method, emitters of elastic waves and probes are placed in the soil base, each of which contains a heating element, a receiving acoustic transducer and a thermometer. Additionally, other sensors, such as pressure sensors, can be placed in the probes. Soil samples are taken from the examined massif and cured using the same technology that was used to strengthen the massif. On such samples, the correspondence of the AE parameters to the stages of the deformed state of the soil and its characteristics is established according to standardized methods, for example, according to GOST 21153.2. With the help of probes, the soil mass is cyclically heated and acoustic emission (AE) is recorded, both stimulated in the geoenvironment by heating, and when it is sounded by elastic waves. The values of the activity and duration of the Dimp ofAE pulses are determined, averaged over the time of heating the soil to the operating temperature М[DIimp(х)] and for part of the exposure interval at this temperature М[DIIimp(x)]. The values of the amplitude Aimp, the number of spikes in the pulse Vimp, the energy of the source Esour of the signals passing through the ground are determined, averaged over the sounding time M[Aimpref(0)], M[Vimpref(0)], М[Esourref(0)] of the soil by elastic waves before its first heating and for the interval of sounding M[Aimpmes(x)], M[Vimpmes(x)], М[Esourmes(х)], produced in each cycle of holding the soil at operating temperature after the registration of the Dimp values used to determine M[DIIimp(x)]. The indicator Rtgrneu(x) is calculated: . Comparing the full-scale values of Rtgrneu(x) with each other and with the values of Rtgrneu(L) obtained on the samples and the corresponding results of their tests according to standardized methods, the change in the stability of the soil mass is judged. Effect: expanding the functionality of the method by providing the ability to determine the change in the stability of the soil mass treated with hardening substances, containing the foundations intended for placing buildings and structures on them, and increasing the performance of monitoring the state of the geoenvironment by the method for acoustic emission.


A. S. Potokin, A. K. Pak (Mining Institute - Subdivision of the Federal Research Centre “Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences” (MI KSC RAS), Apatity). Methods for determining rockburst in mining workings. Mining Industry Journal. 2022. No. 5. P. 139-143. DOI 10.30686/1609-9192-2022-5-139-143 (full text). https://mining-media.ru/images/2022/05_2022/139-143.pdf (full text). eLibrary ID: 49787460 (full text)

Abstract Insufficient attention is currently paid to experimental studies aimed to assess the rock strength. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to study the changes in rock properties in the main fracture zone under compression and stretching conditions. The research paper reviews methods to assess fracture activity in mine workings prone to rock bursts. The possibility of detecting near-fracture changes in the rock mass of the mine workings has been determined using acoustic and electromagnetic emission detection devices (equipment) currently available on the market. Work has been carried out to determine acoustic emission (AE) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) parameters during uniaxial and triaxial loading of rock samples.


Y. G. Matvienko, I. E. Vasil'ev, D. V. Chernov (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences). Damage and failure of unidirectional laminate by acoustic emission combined with video recording. Acta Mechanica. 2021. DOI: 10.1007/s00707-020-02866-6. eLibrary ID: 45014944

Abstract Research results of damage and failure of unidirectional laminate packages under tension are presented. A study of the kinetics of damage and failure of the laminate structure is carried out by means of acoustic emission (AE) and synchronous video recording. The conformity between failure proceses occurring on the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scale levels and the recorded AE events including their energy parameters, shape and spectrum is established. The structural–phenomenological approach implemented by dividing the AE data array into energy clusters allows analyzing the degree of damage and failure of the material employing new criteria parameters, namely the registration activity and the weight content of the location AE events in the clusters of the lower, middle and upper energy levels


R. Oshkin (National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Mining Institute, Moscow). Method of thermally stimulated acoustic emission to assess changes in the deformed state of rocks under quasi-static loading. E3S Web of Conferences 266, 03009 (2021). DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202126603009. https://www.e3s-conferences.org/articles/e3sconf/pdf/2021/42/e3sconf_ti2021_03009.pdf (full text). eLibrary ID: 46824262

Abstract This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the acoustic-emission response of limestone samples exposed to incrementally increasing quasi-static mechanical loads and a series of thermal shocks. The subject of the study also included the design and composition (confi-guration) of the laboratory facility for the research, as indicated above. The patterns of change in thermally stimulated acoustic emission (TAE) as a function of the deformed state of limestone under development are theoret-ically substantiated. An acoustic-emission criterion enabling a qualitative assessment of the residual strength of rocks was proposed and substan-tiated. The methodological approaches to the processing with the presenta-tion of the author’s interpretation of the physical meaning of the experi-mentally obtained initial measurement data are defined. Finally, the fundamental possibility of using the obtained results in the field conditions for monitoring the evolution of the deformed state of rocks is shown.


Builo, S.I., Builo, B.I. Chebakov, M.I. (Institute of Mathematics, Mechanics and Computer Science named after I.I. Vorovich, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia; Russian University of Transport (MIIT), Moscow, Russia). Probalistic-Information Approach to Assessing the Reliability of the Results of the Acoustic-Emission Method of Testing and Diagnostics. Russ J Nondestruct Test 57, 375–382 (2021). DOI: 10.1134/S1061830921050077. eLibrary ID: 47038021

Abstract The features of the quantitative determination of the reliability of the results of the acoustic- emission (AE) method of monitoring and diagnostics are considered. It has been established that the traditional way of defining reliability via the probability of a controlled parameter falling into a certain interval sometimes suffers from informational underdetermination. It is shown that taking into account the probabilistic and information aspects of the assessment of reliability makes it possible to unambiguously link the concept of reliability of the results of testing and diagnostics with the amount of information obtained in the course of the inspection or diagnostics operation itself. Examples of practical determination of information reliability of the results of AE method are given.


Makhutov N.A., Vasiliev I.E., Chernov D.V., Ivanov V.I., Terent’ev E.V. (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; ZAO RII MSIA “Spectrum”, Moscow; Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Moscow). Kinetics of damage accumulation and failure in the zones of stress raisers in sample rupture tests. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2021. Т. 57. № 1. С. 31-42. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830921010095. eLibrary ID: 46023085

Abstract The influence of various kinds of stress raisers on the processes of damage accumulation, initiation, and propagation of cracks in specimens of steel St3 under uniaxial tension has been considered. The investigated samples had a central aperture with diameter of ∅ = 5 mm or a transverse weld. The results of acoustic emission diagnostics showed that, despite the different nature of the stress raisers, the loading diagrams, the nature of damage accumulation and development of main cracks, the number of recorded acoustic emission (AE) events, and the activity of their recording, as well the dynamics of changes in the weight content of location pulses (Wi) in the energy clusters of the low, medium, and high levels were quite similar, along with the values of these parameters during sample failure.


Makhutov N.A., Vasil'ev I.E., Chernov D.V., Mishchenko I.V., Moskovskaia D.S. (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI)). Estimation of the additive and multiplicative error of the standard algorithm of acoustic emission sources linear location. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering : 32th International Conference of Young Scientists and Students Topical Problems of Mechanical Engineering 2020 (TopME 2020), Moscow, 02–04 December 2020. Blagonravov Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMASH RAN). Moscow. IOP Publishing Ltd, 2021. P. 012018. DOI 10.1088/1757-899X/1129/1/012018. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/1129/1/012018 (full text). eLibrary ID: 48134340

Abstract The paper deals with the results of the standard acoustic emission (AE) source linear location algorithm, which evaluates the location of developing damage in a steel sample under static load test to destruction. The linear location algorithm error is due to many factors: acquisition threshold of the AE signals and the dispersion properties of recorded signals, in particular, the dependence of the AE signal propagation velocity on its amplitude. According to the test results, the additive error in determining the time difference of arrival (TDA) of the AE signals to the transducers array is 52.8 μs and the average multiplicative error level is 0.67



Medvedev K. A. (STC EgidA LLC, Moscow). Results of the study of acoustic-emission parameters of fiberglass pipelines for the development of the inspection methodology. Improvement of reliability of main gas pipelines subject to stress corrosion cracking : V International Scientific and Technical Seminar, Москва, December 16–18, 2020. Moscow. Gazprom, 2020. P. 47. eLibrary ID: 44589337 (full text)

Abstract During 2019 STC EgidA LLC and INTERUNIS-IT LLC with the participation of the NCO Association Rostechexpertiza conducted a number of tests in the sites of Tatneft-Presskomposite LLC for development of a method of AE testing of in-service fiberglass pipelines. The following results were obtained based on the results of the tests. The acoustic parameters of fiberglass pipelines were determined: the attenuation coefficient is 2.96 dB/m, the velocity of AE signals is 1304 m/s and the recommended value of the amplitude discrimination threshold is 42 dB. 60-80 % of cases of leakage of fiberglass pipelines are preceded by a strong excess of AE activity level 100 imp./s. In different experiments the duration of such excess ranged from 0 to 300 s depending on the loading rate but also on how close the holding pressure selected in increments of 25 % approached the failure pressure. Amplitudes exceeding 60–80 dB correspond to the failure of a single fiber with a diameter of 20 microns. The most informative parameter for assessment of the technical condition of fiberglass pipeline is the AE activity. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out loading without holding. Continuous AE should be considered a signature of a hazard class IV source. If the AE activity exceeds the level of 100 imp/s for 3–5 seconds, it should be considered as a signature of the presence of a class III source and the linear increase in AE activity under a load with activity values ranging from 10 to 100 imp/s should be considered as a source of hazard class II. The presence of signals with an amplitude higher than 60 dB should be considered a signature of the presence of a hazard class I source. The above results are provided in the author's presentation.


Belozerov V.V., Golubov A.I., Kalchenko I.E., Nguyen T.A., Topolsky N.G. (Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don; Academy of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Disaster Management, Moscow; Fire Safety Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam). Nanotechnologies for testing and diagnostics of materials, constructions and elements of engineering systems of buildings from them with fire retardant coatings. Part 1. Nanotechnologies in Construction. 2020, Vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 174–184. DOI: 10.15828/2075-8545-2020-12-3-174-184. http://nanobuild.ru/en_EN/journal/Nanobuild-3-2020/174-184.pdf (full text). eLibrary ID: 43002702 (full text)

Abstract Introduction. The aim of the study was to optimize the quality control of fire retardant coatings (FRC) during their production and use. The results of a comparative analysis of the consequences of fires and their causes with the parameter of fire resistance of objects indicate that the number of fires and damage from them in buildings of the first degree of fire resistance is almost an order of magnitude smaller than in buildings of the second degree of fire resistance. Consequently, increasing the fire resistance of building materials and structures is the way to radically reduce fires and losses from them. Methods and materials. Based on a system analysis of existing fire protection technologies for building materials made of wood, metals, rubber and polymers, nanotechnologies were developed to determine the stability of samples with an FRC on the baro-electro-thermo-acoustic (BETA) analyzer and create their «images» for further diagnosis of their aging at the constructions and operation facility. The novelty of the study is protected by patents of the Russian Federation. Results and discussion. The obtained results consist in the refinement of computational algorithms for the FRC in the BETA analyzer, as well as in the development of a portable automated complex, which allows to determine the stage of «aging» of the FRC on these materials, and, consequently, their durability and update time. This conclusion is based, firstly, on the results of the development of a thermo-electro-dilatometer crucible for controlling liquid and viscous materials by the authors of the «float design», which will make it possible to control the FRC characteristics during their production, and secondly, to carry out express control after filling them in containers (polymer, metal, glass) without opening it and thirdly, due to the recognition of these «images» using thermo-electro-measurements of the FRC using special probes connected to a portable automated system. Conclusion. The results obtained make it possible to «arm» with portable automated systems not only construction and fire control authorities, but also manufacturers of emergency protection products. This will allow, according to the authors, to fundamentally solve the problems of quality and durability of FRC, but the main thing is to guarantee the stability of the protected materials and structures from them.


Builo S.I., Vereskun V.D., Kolesnikov V.I., Manturov D.S., Popov O.N. (Rostov State Transport University, Rostov-on-Don; Vorovich Institute for Mathematics, Mechanics, and Computer Science, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don). Determining Friction Coefficient at Run-In Stage and Diagnosing the Point of Transition to Steady-State Phase Based on Acoustic Emission Signals. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2020. Vol. 56. No 1. P. 41-48. DOI 10.1134/S1061830920010039. eLibrary ID: 43269502

Abstract We study the joint dynamics of changes in the parameters of acoustic emission (AE) and in the friction coefficient during TRB friction machine testing of flat steel 12Kh2N4ASh specimens, including those with Ti + Al + N ion-plasma vacuum sputtering. The results of studying the shape of the curve of the reconstructed values of AE-event stream intensity in different parts of the experimental curves of the dependence of friction coefficient on test time are presented. A significant correlation was discovered between the friction coefficient and the reconstructed AE-event stream intensity. Methods are proposed for evaluating the friction coefficient and the time of the run-in stage end based on the reconstructed AE-event stream.


Eremenko V.A., Vysotin N.G., Leizer V.I., Kosyreva M.A., Galchenko Y.P. (College of Mining, National University of Science and Technology—MISIS, Moscow; Academician Melnikov Research Institute for Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources—IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). Strength, deformation and acoustic characteristics of physical models of frame and honeycomb underground structures. Journal of Mining Science. 2020. Vol. 56. No 6. P. 962-971. DOI 10.1134/S1062739120060083. eLibrary ID: 46789420

Abstract The article describes preparation and implementation of experimental research into strength, deformation and acoustic characteristics of physical models of frame and honeycomb underground structures designed at the Research Center for Applied Geomechanics and Convergent Technologies in Mining at NUST MISIS College of Mining. An integrated test bench for physical and optical modeling of geophysical processes in the secondary stress fields, an installation and a special test bench for 3D physical modeling of any complexity are manufactured. The standard variants of physical modeling of the advanced frame and honeycomb underground structures are developed. The authors present the test data on strength, deformation and acoustic characteristics obtained on a model of a frame structure variant. The tests show that honeycomb underground structures exhibit higher stability when they contain more circular openings of smaller diameter.


Kolesnikov V.I., Vereskun V.D., Manturov D.S., Popov O.N., Novikov E.S., Kudryakov O.V. (Rostov State University of Railway Engineering, Rostov-on-Don; Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don). Technologies for Improving the Wear Resistance of Heavily Loaded Tribosystems and Their Monitoring. Journal of Friction and Wear. 2020. Vol. 41. No 2. P. 169-173. – DOI 10.3103/S1068366620020051. eLibrary ID: 43289650

Abstract Despite interest, no one to the best of our knowledge has compared the physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of nitride-based TiAlN and CrAlSiN coatings, nor diamond-like ion-plasma coatings (DLC). In order to identify the physical and mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus E and hardness H, we used nanoindentation methods, while experimental tribological testing of coatings was carried out on a TRB tribometer (Anton Paar TriTec SA). These tests revealed that during operation in the contact area of splined joints, a multilayer coating has better mechanical properties than a monolayer one under the testing conditions at specific loads comparable to operating loads. At the same time, a DLC coating features a much lower friction coefficient than do nitride systems. In addition, the paper presents the results of keeping friction units under observation by the acoustic emission (AE) method, which makes it possible to determine the running-in time for both coated and uncoated friction units.


Y. G. Matvienko, I. E. Vasil’ev, M. A. Bubnov, D. V. Chernov (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). Influence of Dimensions and Shape of Process Cutouts on the Accuracy of Locating Acoustic Emission Sources. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2020. Vol. 56. No 2. P. 101-109. DOI 10.1134/S1061830920020060. eLibrary ID: 43285326

Abstract Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of the size and shape of cutouts in steel plates on the difference in the arrival time of acoustic emission pulses at receiving transducers. The data obtained were compared with the results of a numerical simulation of the propagation of elastic waves in plates with various strip and circular cutouts. The research results indicate that the shape of the cutout has a much lesser effect on the time of recording pulses by the transducers of an antenna array than the size of the cutout and the location of the receiving transducer relative to the shading zone—the edge of the cut-out. Based on the results of studies in a 40-mm–thick steel plate with a central 100 mm hole, the accuracy of locating an acoustic emission source near the edge of the hole was estimated. Studies have shown that, in this case, to reduce the measurement error to less than 10% of the antenna-array base size, the location group must include at least four transducers. Numerical simulation of the propagation of acoustic emission pulses in plates with strip and circular cutouts made it possible to significantly reduce the volume of experimental studies, while increasing their information content.


Matvienko Y.G., Vasil’ev I.E., Chernov D.V., Ivanov V.I., Mishchenko I.V. (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Research Institute of Introscopy MNPO Spektr, Moscow; National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Moscow). Error Reduction in Determining the Wave-Packet Speed in Composite Materials. Instruments and Experimental Techniques. 2020. Vol. 63. No 1. P. 106-111. DOI 10.1134/S0020441220010212. eLibrary ID: 43260269

Abstract The causes of fluctuations of the acoustic-impulse propagation velocity in a composite plate upon a change in the distance between the radiation source and a receiving transducer from 30 to 300 mm were studied. Methods for minimizing these fluctuations by reducing the influence of high-frequency wave-packet modes at the time of recording impulses by acoustic-emission transducers were developed. The use of the latter in determining the propagation velocity of a wave packet contributed to a decrease in fluctuations and stabilization of measurements in the diagnostic zones of the composite plate. These methods made it possible to reduce the velocity fluctuations by more than 30% compared to the standard calculation method.


Makhutov N.A., Sokolova A.G., Vasil'ev I.E., Chernov D.V., Skvortsov D.F., Bubnov M.A., Ivanov V.I. (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; ZAO RII MSIA “Spectrum”, Moscow). Monitoring Composite Fiber Failure Using Acoustic Emission System, Vibration Analyzer, and High-Speed Video Recording. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2020. Vol. 56. No 12. P. 960-970. DOI 10.1134/S1061830920120049. eLibrary ID: 46747829

Abstract We consider the nature of the phenomenon of acoustic emission (AE) occurring in the process of deformation and destruction of solid bodies. A theoretical analysis of the processes of transformation and dissipation of energy during the destruction of structural bonds of an idealized model of a solid has been carried out. Using A-line32D and PCI-2 AE systems, Onyx vibration analyzer, and Videosprint high-speed camera, as well as numerical simulation in the LS-DYNA software environment, we study wave processes occurring during deformation and rupture of reinforcing fibers of composite materials. The obtained experimental and calculation data indicate that the main energy is emitted within the period of the aftereffect of fiber rupture in the range of sound frequencies less than 2 kHz. In this case, the energy of the peak values recorded in the ultrasonic frequency range does not exceed several percent of the maximum level at the carrier frequency in the audio range.


M. S. Nikiforova, E. N. Kostyukov (Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov). Influence of Filler Crystal Sizes on Acoustic Emission Parameters during Tensile Testing of Parts Made of Plasticized HMX. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2020. Vol. 56. No 9. P. 699-705. DOI 10.1134/S1061830920090089. eLibrary ID: 45131559

Abstract We study changes in the parameters of acoustic emission that develops during quasistatic deformation of parts made of plasticized coarse- and fine-grained HMX under tension. Characteristic changes in acoustic emission dependences and absolute values of acoustic emission parameters have been determined during transition from a coarse- to a fine-grained material structure. In accordance with the results of the experiments, we analyze possible scenarios of the development of the process of damage accumulation and failure of parts with a change in the size of crystals that form their internal structure. As a confirmation of the corresponding changes in the parameters of acoustic emission, we have investigated the structure of the surface of parts in the zones of their failure using an electron microscope. Under tension, the failure of parts based on finely dispersed HMX occurs instantly, when a critical level of damage is reached in any part of the volume and conditions are created for microcracks to combine into macrocracks. For parts containing coarse HMX, failure typically occurs according to the principle of a “weak” link, ie., localization of microcracks in one or several zones over the volume of the deformed material as early as at the initial stage of loading. These zones become the spots where cracks merge and the focus of their further development up to failure at a new scale level. The results obtained expand the existing understanding of the process of damage accumulation and failure of energy-yielding materials and can be used in the development and improvement of relevant mathematical models.


Novikov E.A., Shkuratnik V.L., Zaitsev M.G., Klementyev E.A., Blokhin D.I. (National University of Science and Technology “MISiS,”, Moscow; N.V. Melnikov Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). Acoustic Emission of Frozen Soils under Quasi-Static Mechanical and Cyclic Thermal Loading. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. 2020. Vol. 57. No 2. P. 97-104. DOI 10.1007/s11204-020-09643-6. eLibrary ID: 43306247

Abstract The effects of acoustic emission (AE) in soils during freezing and thawing under cyclic thermal and quasi-static mechanical loading have been studied. The composition and characteristics of the developed instrumentation set are presented. The informative AE parameters and primary data processing approaches were justified. The acoustic emission patterns of soil material behavior under the variable thermobaric conditions were obtained. The comparative tests were performed using static probing and ultrasonic scanning.


M. R. Tyutin, V. G. Budueva, G. G. Alekseev (Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Fourth Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense, Korolev). Effect of the Technological State of the Material of the Structural Elements of Fuel Tanks Made of Amg6 Alloy on the Acoustic Emission Parameters. Russian Metallurgy (Metally). 2020. Vol. 2020. No 10. P. 1213-1217. DOI 10.1134/S0036029520100304. eLibrary ID: 45184012

Abstract The development of acoustic emission during tensile tests of specimens taken from the shells and bottoms of large fuel tanks made of an Amg6 alloy after long-term (for about 30 years) operation is investigated. Different technological states of the structural elements of a tank (cold working of the shell and annealing of the bottom) are shown to affect the acoustic parameters. The activity of acoustic emission signals are found to decrease during the destruction of the cold-worked material and in the specimens oriented across the rolling direction.


V. L. Shkuratnik, O. S. Kravchenko, Y. L. Filimonov (National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Moscow; Joint Stock Company “Gazprom Geotekhnologii”, Moscow). Acoustic Emission of Rock Salt at Different Uniaxial Strain Rates and Under Temperature. Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics. 2020. Vol. 61. No 3. P. 479-485. DOI 10.1134/S0021894420030207. eLibrary ID: 45333994

Abstract Acoustic emission activity and longitudinal and volumetric deformations in rock salt samples subjected to uniaxial mechanical loading with a constant strain rate and thermal stress are measured. The features of acoustic emission during deformation under various thermobaric experimental conditions are analyzed It is shown that, in contrast to the deformation parameters, the change in the activity of acoustic emission at the boundaries of the indicated stages is nonmonotonic in nature, as well as features that make it possible to accurately determine each stage and estimate the elastic and strength properties of the rock salt


V. L. Shkuratnik, O. S. Kravchenko, Y. L. Filimonov (National University of Science and Technology—MUSIS, Moscow; Gazprom geotekhnologii, Moscow). Stress Memory in Acoustic Emission of Rock Salt Samples in Cyclic Loading under Variable Temperature Effects. Journal of Mining Science. 2020. Vol. 56. No 2. P. 209-215. DOI 10.1134/S1062739120026662. eLibrary ID: 45350831

Abstract The behavior of acoustic emission in uniaxial cyclic loading of rock salt samples from the Kaliningrad deposit is determined. The samples were tested under varied temperatures and ratios of maximal stresses in sequential loading cycles. The experimental curves of acoustic emission activity and maximal stress and temperature of the previous cycle are obtained. Stress memory in acoustic emission manifests itself equally stably under constant higher and lower temperatures. Memory of the maximal stress of the previous cycle persists under higher temperature in the next cycle and vanishes under lower temperature in the next cycle. In case of the same maximal stresses and constant or higher temperatures in the successive cycles, the stress memory effect is vague: the stress estimated on this base is lower than the maximal stress of the previous cycle.



D.S. Bals, L.A. Vinogradov, Yu. Soldatova (TTS LNK Industries, Riga, Latvija; Riga Technical University Institute of Civil Aviation, Riga, Latvija). Quality control of multi-pass weld by means of acoustic emission. Machines. Technologies. Materials. 2019. V. 13. No. 6. Pp. 263-265. https://stumejournals.com/journals/mtm/2019/6/263.full.pdf (full text). https://stumejournals.com/journals/mtm/2019/4/152.full.pdf (full text)

Abstract The article proposes a method of assessing the quality of multi-pass weld by acoustic emission. The AE method involves the identification of developing defects at the stage of stress changes in the material, as well as in the statically loaded state. In the process of control two independent data collection systems were used, which worked in the process of testing synchronously. The selected method of control of the object has a number of advantages over other methods of NDT.


E. Klyuchka, D. Kuznetsov, V. Dudnik, A. Lukyanov, V. Gaponov (Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don; Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), Novocherkassk). New methods of seeds functional state and activity control for the development of the biotechnical feedback concept. AIP Conference Proceedings 2188, 030015 (2019); DOI: 10.1063/1.5138408. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.5138408 (full text). eLibrary ID: 43229414

Abstract The practical implementation of the methods of analysis of the functional state of the biotechnological system is considered. It is shown that the indicator of habitat assessment can be the plants themselves, which reflect all the changes. Biotechnical feedback is a source for the Databases formation in the biotechnological system. The hypothesis was offered that the productivity of plants, which depends on three elements of the light environment (spectrum, intensity, time of exposure). A system for experimental studies on light stimulation of vegetable and green crops has been developed. The results of studies showing the influence of different light stimulation spectra are presented. Method of acoustic signals of seeds (method of acoustic emission in a liquid) was proposed to determine the functional activity of seeds. An experimental system was created to detect the generated acoustic waves at the initial stage of plant ontogenesis. Thus biotechnological systems for growing plants in an artificial microclimate should be built on the basis of biotechnical feedback.


Ryakhovskikh I. V. (Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC). Regularities of the near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking of gas pipelines. Научно-технический сборник Вести газовой науки. 2019. No 3(40). P. 43-59. http://www.vesti-gas.ru/sites/default/files/attachments/vgn-3-40-2019-043-059.pdf (full text). eLibrary ID: 42517478 (full text)

Abstract The article considers stress corrosion cracking (SCC) prediction models for pipes steels describing main stages of the process, their rates and implementation conditions. A number of tests, namely: electrochemical, corrosion-mechanical, mechanical, operational life tests, X-ray tests of layer-by-layer texture and residual stresses, analysis of micro and dislocation structure, were carried out for Х70-steel pipes manufactured in Germany and USSR, after these pipes had been operated within the gas pipelines for a long time. It was shown that the texture nonuniformity of steels and residual process stresses in pipes are the parameters characterizing resource for growth or slowdown of cracks at initial stages. The cyclic tests did not identify any indicators of fatigue growth and significant changes of dislocational structure in the areas close to the cracks ~0,2δ deep (where δ is the pipe wall thickness). During static and low-amplitude cyclic loads in the test environment with рН = 5,5…7,0 the rate of crack growth accelerates with available component (sulfide, carbonate, or phosphate) stimulating the anodic dissolution.It was found out that SCC-cracks not deeper than 0,2δ were not dangerous for pipelines reliability;on exposure of corrosion environment the forecasted growth rates of such defects did not exceed0,3…0,4 mm per year, apart from cracks located in the welded joints and along the weld-fusion line. Growing of the 0,2δ deep SCC-cracks would stop without electrolyte.


S. I. Builo, D. M. Kuznetsov, V. L. Gaponov (Vorovich Institute of Mathematics, Mechanics, and Computer Science, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don; Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University, Novocherkassk; Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don). Acoustic-Emission Monitoring of Nonequilibrium Stage of Electrolysis. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2019. Vol. 55. No 11. P. 803-807. DOI 10.1134/S1061830919110032. eLibrary ID: 43250130

Abstract We consider some features of applying the method of acoustic emission (AE) for monitoring electrolysis. The dynamics of changes in AE at the nonequilibrium stage of electrodeposition of copper from a sulfate electrolyte is described. It is shown that the AE method allows one to evaluate the kinetics of electrolysis and recognize its nonequilibrium stage. The foundations of a method for determining the dynamics of electrolysis in real time based on the parameters of the concomitant emission of ultrasound are proposed.


Vasilev I.E., Matvienko Yu.G., Chernov D.V., Makhutov N.A., Ivanov V.I. Method of simulating transient processes of accumulation of damages in a diagnosed object and a device of a bifurcation model. Russian patent №2704575 (2019). eLibrary ID: 41323015

Abstract Field: simulation of processes. Substance: use to simulate unstable transient processes of damage accumulation in a diagnosed object with registration of points of structural and system bifurcation. Summary of invention consists in the fact that to record dynamics of transient processes during formation of bulk cone and change of their trend at points of structural and system bifurcation, due to accumulation of critical mass of granulate at apex of cone, its settling under action of own weight and subsequent avalanche caving, it is proposed to create conditions of conic surface collapse of granulate at low thickness of formed layer δ=10–20 mm, and time strobing of transient processes is carried out by synchronous recording of video images and arrays of local pulses, recorded using acoustic emission monitoring, every second separating AE signals into clusters of lower, middle and upper energy level, by counting frequency of their registration ωi=L,M,U and percentage content Wi=L,M,U, fixing the dynamics of these parameters on the graphs and changing the trend of transient processes at the points of structural and system bifurcation, thus confirming the moments of their recording with frames of high-speed video filming. Effect: possibility of simulating the dynamics of changing trend of accumulation of damages in points of structural and system bifurcation occurring in the diagnosed object.


Y. G. Matvienko, I. E. Vasil'ev, D. V. Chernov (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). Study of the Fracture Kinetics of a Unidirectional Laminate Using Acoustic Emission and Video Recording. Inorganic Materials. 2020. Vol. 56. No 15. P. 1536-1550. DOI 10.1134/S0020168520150145. eLibrary ID: 44965094

Abstract The kinetics of fracture of structural bonds in a unidirectional laminate package under the effect of tensile load is studied using acoustic emission (AE) combined with video recording. A correspondence between the fractures occurring at micro-, meso-, and macroscale levels of the laminate package and the location pulses thus recorded and their energy parameters, shape, and spectrum is determined. Data on testing of the new criterion parameters used in acoustic emission monitoring, including the frequency of registration of location pulses in energy clusters and their weight content, as well as the methods providing separation of location pulses into the clusters with similar spectra related to the same or similar types of acoustic emission events, are presented. The proposed parameters and structural-phenomenological approach implemented through dividing the entire array of acoustic-emission data into energy clusters make it possible to quantify the degree of destruction of structural bonds of structural material at all scale levels and predict the residual strength of the product. Fusion of the acoustic emission events recorded at different stages of specimen loading and images of video recording of damage accumulation and fracture of the structural bonds in a unidirectional laminate package revealed the correspondence between the fracture of the composite occurring at micro-, meso-, and macroscale levels, acoustic waves thus generated and location pulses, and their energy parameters, shape, and spectrum


Matvienko Y.G., Vasil’ev I.E., Chernov D.V., Pankov V.A. (Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovskii). Acoustic-emission monitoring of airframe failure under cyclic loading. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2019, 55, 8, pp. 570-580. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830919080084. eLibrary ID: 41706288

Abstract The structural–phenomenological approach used to classify and split acoustic-emission signals into energy clusters, together with the parameters of detection frequency and weight content of location pulses in the clusters, allows real-time monitoring of main trends in damage accumulation at different structural levels and makes it possible to isolate signals generated during the failure of a structural material from accompanying mechanical interference and electromagnetic noise. An example of applying new criterion parameters to determining the moment of delamination of stringer runoffs from the shelves of the MC-21 airframe support strut under conditions of fatigue tests with a symmetric loading cycle is provided. Using the new criterion parameters and developed cluster-analysis techniques, employed, among other things, to discriminate location pulses in the field of spectral characteristics, an interconnection has been established between the process of breaking cohesive and adhesive bonds in the adhesive layer at the boundary between the stringer runoff fastening and the support strut shelves and the generated acoustic signals by their energy, waveform, and spectrum.


E. А. Novikov, V. L. Shkuratnik, M. G. Zaytsev. Manifestations of Acoustic Emission in Frozen Soils with Simultaneous Influence of Variable Mechanical and Thermal Effects on Them. Journal of Mining Institute. 2019. Vol. 238. P. 383-391. DOI 10.31897/PMI.2019.4.383. https://pmi.spmi.ru/index.php/pmi/article/view/13211/11966 (full text). eLibrary ID: 41210668

Abstract The subject of the research is to establish the fundamental laws of acoustic emission in frozen soils, which allow to create ways to control (monitor) their stability under the influence of variable temperature fields and quasistatic mechanical stress from engineering objects located on these grounds for various purposes. The applied importance of such methods is to increase the speed and reduce the complexity of engineering geological surveys in the northern regions of Russia, carried out with the aim of predicting the loss of stability of the bases of buildings and structures to ensure their safe operation. The study was performed on the original instrumental complex. Its description and characteristics are given. With the use of this complex, thermoacoustic emission effects arising from the repeated alternation of freezing and thawing cycles of the soil during the development of its deformed state, starting from the normal compaction phase and up to the final stage of destruction (the bulging phase), have been studied. It is shown that on the basis of such informative parameters as thermally stimulated activity and duration of acoustic emission pulses, an indicator can be obtained that quantitatively characterizes the stages of the stress-strain state of soils. An experimental dependence of the field of values of this indicator as a function of the mechanical stress and the fractional composition of the test soil is given. The qualitative convergence of this dependence with the classical soil deformation diagram obtained by N.M.Hersevanov is shown, where the stages of compaction, loss of stability (shifts) and destruction are highlighted. Possible physical mechanisms and features of the formation of an acoustic emission response at each of these stages are considered and substantiated. It is noted that the approaches to receiving, processing and interpreting acoustic emission measurement information, which are grounded within the framework of the study, allow to control and monitoring of the carrying capacity and stress-strain state of soils directly in the field.


V. L. Shkuratnik, O. S. Kravchenko, Y. L. Filimonov. Stresses and Temperature Affecting Acoustic Emission and Rheological Characteristics of Rock Salt. Journal of Mining Science. 2019. Vol. 55. No 4. P. 531-537. DOI 10.1134/S1062739119045879. eLibrary ID: 43247213

Abstract Synchronized acoustic emission and strain measurements were carried out in rock salt samples subjected simultaneously to different levels of uniaxial mechanical and incrementally increasing temperature effects. Methodological and hardware support of such measurements is described. Experimental dependences are obtained, which reflect changes in shear strains and acoustic emission activity of samples as functions of time and temperature for different axial stresses. As the stresses increase, rock salt transits to the stage of progressive creep at lower temperatures. The transition to each subsequent stage of the temperature effect is accompanied by an increase in the steepness of shear strains and activity-average acoustic emission. The patterns of changes in these parameters at the stages of steady and progressive creep of rock salt are analyzed. The advantages of using acoustic emission measurements to predict rock salt failure due to progressive creep, as well as their importance for solving the problem on estimating salt rocks properties in real thermobaric conditions for the construction and operation of underground gas storages are noted.



Tukaeva, R. B., Prokhorov, A. A., & Miniakhmetov, O. Y. (2018). Magnetic Inspection for Assessing the Uniformity of Flange Joints Bolt Tightening. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, 1781–1791. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-95630-5_191. eLibrary ID: 38653535

A. M. Lepikhin, V. V. Moskvichev, A. P. Chernyaev (Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk; Nauka Special Design and Technological Bureau, Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk). Acoustic-Emission Monitoring of the Deformation and Fracture of Metal–Composite Pressure Vessels. Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics. 2018. Vol. 59. No 3. P. 511-518. DOI 10.1134/S0021894418030161. eLibrary ID: 35753666

Abstract This paper presents the results of experimental studies of damage accumulation in a metal–composite pressure vessel by pneumatic strength tests. The deformation and fracture of the composite structure accompanied by matrix cracking and fiber rupture are analyzed. It is shown that the cracks and fractures generate acoustic-emission signals of various types. The results of acoustic-emission monitoring were used to develop a criterion for ranking vessels according to the strength characteristics of the pressure composite shell.


P. V. Nikolenko, V. L. Shkuratnik, M. D. Chepur, A. E. Koshelev (National University of Science and Technology—MISIS, Moscow; GAZPROM Geotechnology, Moscow). Using the Kaiser Effect in Composites for Stressed Rock Mass Control. Journal of Mining Science. 2018. Vol. 54. No 1. P. 21-26. DOI 10.1134/S1062739118013282. eLibrary ID: 38632546

Abstract Stress memory in consolidating composites in acoustic emission is studied experimentally to understand feasibility of its application in stress state control in rock mass. The tests show that, owing to uniformity and comparatively high responsiveness of acoustic emission behavior under straining, composite materials, when placed in a geomedium, allow highly accurate identification of tensor of actual stresses in it.


E. A. Novikov, V. L. Shkuratnik, M. G. Zaitsev (National University of Science and Technology, Moscow). Effect of Thermal Memory in Acoustic Emission in Fossil Coal after Pre-Disintegration by Cryogenic Treatment. Journal of Mining Science. 2018. Vol. 54. No 6. P. 883-892. DOI 10.1134/S1062739118065023. eLibrary ID: 41683885

Abstract Acoustic emission response of fossil coals being at different stages of metamorphism to cyclic variation of effective thermal stresses is experimentally investigated. The equipment and procedure used in the experiments are described. The features of the response are revealed and analyzed in the samples of anthracite, lignite and bituminous coal with different damage extent governed by the preliminary cyclic freezing and thawing, as well as by water saturation. It is shown that the signature of such features is a thermal analog of the Felicity effect which appears in each cycle of temperature action. The regularities of this effect are found, and their physical explanation is given based on the analysis of defect formation in coals at different stages of thermal treatment. The methodical approaches are proposed and substantiated, which allow structural damage, thermal resistance, oxidation and proneness to frost weathering of coal to be estimated by the Felicity effect in the acoustic emission response of coal to cyclic thermal forces. Possibility of using the found features to predict structural changes in coal products which are in long-term storage under specific climatic conditions, as well as for forecasting risk of self-heating and spontaneous combustion of coal products is discussed.


Novikov E.A., Shkuratnik V.L., Zajtsev M.G., Epshtejn S.A. Method for determining the thermal resistance of coals to their cyclic freezing and thawing. Russian patent № 2644615 (2018). eLibrary ID: 39267813

Abstract Field: measuring equipment. Substance: invention relates to metrology, in particular to methods for determining the thermal stability of coals during their cyclic freezing and thawing. Essence: cyclical freezing and thawing of the same type of coal samples are performed at M number of cycles equal to the serial number of the corresponding sample in the series. Further, in parallel recording the parameters of acoustic emission, each of the samples is slowly uniformly heated to a temperature in the range of (80–90) ± 5 °C and held at it for at least 4 hours. Boundaries of successive time intervals are then determined, the first of which begins at the time of heating the sample to 30 °C and ends with stabilization of its temperature at a constant value, and the second – of the same duration, begins with an increase in the level of activity of acoustic emission to a value of not less than one and a half times higher than the background noise level. In each of these intervals, average values of acoustic emission activity are calculated. During the slow heating-up of the sample to the holdup temperature, the initially weak structural bonds are destroyed and the source of emission becomes weak, and when the critical stresses are formed in the sample under prolonged thermal loading, the remaining, initially strong bonds become sources of emission. Therefore, the coefficient K, equal to the ratio between the acoustic emission activity in the second and the first of the indicated time intervals, reflects the residual thermal stability of the coal after freezing and thawing. Value of the thermal stability of the coal with respect to cyclic freezing and thawing is defined as the dependence reduction point K(M), which shows the number of cycles after which there are practically no strong structural bonds in the coal under study. Effect: technical result: possibility of determining the thermal stability of coal during its cyclic freezing and thawing.


Rastegaev I.A., Merson D.L., Danyuk A.V., Afanas’ev M.A., Khrustalev A.K. Universal Waveguide for the Acoustic-Emission Evaluation of High-Temperature Industrial Objects. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2018. Vol. 54. No 3. P. 164-173. DOI 10.1134/S1061830918030099. eLibrary ID: 35765141

Abstract An original waveguide design has been proposed that makes it possible to carry out acousticemission inspection, diagnostics, and monitoring of industrial objects operating at temperatures above 85°С. The waveguide ensures higher heat-dissipation characteristics, with minimum acoustic losses, than the known clamped-type waveguides. Its application involves no changes to the test object and requires no special permissions from supervising authorities. The underlying physical operating principles, specific features of embodiment, application possibilities, and results of the full cycle of research into how waveguide design features influence heat-dissipation and acoustic characteristics are described. The use of such waveguides widens the application field for the acoustic-emission method as an express technique for evaluating the technical condition of high-temperature objects both during operation and before decommissioning them for technical diagnostics with the aim to identify active (hazardous) areas and include them into the program of testing with other nondestructive methods.


Rastegaev I.A., Merson D.L., Danyuk A.V., Afanasev M.A., Khrustalev A.K. Universal waveguide of acoustic emission signals. Russian patent № 2665360 (2018). eLibrary ID: 37379495

Abstract Field: physics. Substance: invention relates to waveguides of acoustic emission signals (AE) intended for controlling and monitoring of hazardous production facilities or their elements at temperatures outside the permissible temperature range of application of the AE converter. Universal waveguide of acoustic emission signals with superimposed heat sink elements is characterized in that the heat dissipating device is collapsible and consists of several constituent elements that allow: to carry out its mounting/dismounting during the operation of the waveguide; reorient the device to a new monitoring object, temperature mode of operation, or other waveguide; ensure the compactness of transportation and storage, as well as manufacturability in manufacturing and maintainability during operation. Effect: technical result consists in the possibility of ensuring the compactness of transportation and storage, as well as manufacturability in the manufacture and maintainability during operation.


Chmykhalo A.I., Spiryagin V.V., Chelnokov A.V., Pankin D.A. Method for detecting leakage in a coupling tube heat exchanger. Russian patent № 2670222 (2018). eLibrary ID: 37361874

Abstract Field: defectoscopy. Substance: method refers to the field of nondestructive testing and technical diagnostics of shell-and-tube heat exchangers using acoustic emission, operated in contact with chemically hazardous or combustible substances, and can be used to detect leaks in the heat exchanger during the diagnosis process, as well as to optimize the process of locating leaks in the tube bundle. Essence of the method consists in removing the contents of the channels for the working fluid and the channels for the heat exchange product, introducing a detection product – a gas (for example, an inert gas or nitrogen) into the working fluid passages, introducing a neutralizing liquid, for example 1–2 % acetic acid solution, into the shell space, to control the height of its ascent by means of a calibration table until the entire intertube space is filled, maintenance of pressure in one of the channels is higher than in the other, the identification of leakage of the product of detection from one channel to another, if any, in the process of constant monitoring from the beginning of introduction of the neutralizing liquid by the detection means, for example, an acoustic emission system, by changing the acoustic emission signals accompanying the cavitation leakage of the detection product from the defective tube of the corresponding series, determined from the calibration table, into the neutralizing fluid of the annular space. Effect: creating a method that reduces the time of diagnosis, including detection of leakage, and optimizes the search for a series containing at least one defective tube of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger made with a plurality of tubes, without disassembling it, and at the same time ensure the safety of monitoring the technical condition of heat exchangers in working conditions in contact with chemically hazardous substances.



Kotlyarov A.Yu., Efremov V.V., Kutovoj S.S., Deev A.A., Zhegalov I.N. Method of accuracy and productivity increase of round grinding. Russian patent № 2621495 (2017). eLibrary ID: 38265403

Abstract Field: technological processes. Substance: method includes continuous monitoring of the abrasive wheel cutting ability when grinding on a cylindrical grinding machine using an acoustic emission (AE) sensor and automatic correction of the abrasive wheel with a change in its cutting ability. During the grinding process, the spectral distribution of the number of AE emissions and their peak amplitudes in the frequency spectrum range from 60 to 300 kHz is continuously monitored. Changes in these parameters reflect changes in the structure of macro- and microgeometric deviations of the abrasive wheel interacting surfaces and the details and processes of plastic deformation that develop in the course of reducing the cutting ability of the abrasive wheel. In this case, the automatic correction of the abrasive wheel is carried out by means of its electroerosive dressing by changing the voltage of the electric pulse generator power source supplied to the abrasive wheel in the range of 25…40 V and pulse frequencies in the range of 1…22 kHz. Effect: increased accuracy and productivity of the grinding process.


Permyakov V.N., Makhutov N.A., Sidelnikov S.N. Combined method of strain and stress research. Russian patent № 2611597 (2017). eLibrary ID: 38259710

Abstract Field: oil and gas industry. Substance: invention relates to a technology for studying strains and stresses in constructions of hazardous production facilities of gas and petrochemical industry. ESSENCE: a brittle strain-sensitive porous coating with freon is applied to the detail surface, coating curing and structure loading are carried out, and the freon gas release zone from the porous coating (bubbles are bursting) and the direction of plastic stress during deformation using acoustic emission sensors are determined. The brittle strain-sensitive coating is made of a mixture containing epoxy resin, a hardener probe, gas freon R-22 in the following ratio, wt %: 65-84 epoxy resin, a hardener 14-33 probe, gas freon R-22 2-10. Effect: invention enables to determine the stresses and strains using brittle coatings at the very early stage, eliminating negative effect on the environment.



Skalsky V.R., Pochapsky Y.P., Klym B.P., Simakovych O.H., Tolopko Y.D., Velyky P.P., Dolishniy P.M. (Karpenko Physical and Mechanical Institute, NAS of Ukraine). Diagnostic system of wireless acoustic emission signal transfer for monitoring the oil-and-gas facilities. Science and Innovation. 2016. Vol. 12. No 1. P. 13-21. DOI 10.15407/scine12.01.013. eLibrary ID: 45321507

A. E. Burov, A. M. Lepikhin. Numerical simulation of carrying capacity of the high-pressure metal composite vessel. Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability. 2016. Vol. 45. No 5. P. 443-450. DOI 10.3103/S1052618816050071. eLibrary ID: 27579867

Abstract This paper considers the issue of the numerical simulation of stress–strain state and the destruction of the composite vessel with a metal liner under gradually increasing pressure. The provided solution algorithm is based on the continuum of damage mechanics simulation that relates to the initiation of damage and the accumulation and degradation of the mechanical properties of material. The calculation results are compared with the actual experiment data.


Novikov E.A., Oshkin R.O. Method for determining the number of unfrozen water content in frozen soil. Russian patent № 2580316 (2016). eLibrary ID: 37389895

Abstract Field: drilling of soil or rock. Substance: invention can be used in the design of buildings and structures to determine the amount of unfrozen water in frozen soils. To do this, carry out drilling with coring, thawed frozen soil sample is obtained and determine the total water content of continuous change in the course of an informative indicator of thawing. As an informative indicator of the ratio of use of acoustic emission activity of the monitored area to the array of acoustic emission activity of the most water-saturated area of the core is completely thawed; both figures take into account the specific weight of the soil and averages, consistent and comparable for the duration of the time intervals to determine the distribution of the total moisture content in depth. Registration of acoustic emission is carried out by converters to be placed on the depth of the hole array. Amount of unfrozen water in different parts of the array is calculated from the product of said index and informative total moisture content of the cores obtained at the same depth and in the same well as the corresponding value of the indicator. Effect: invention provides a method of control of the geological environment.


Novikov E.A., Oshkin R.O., Shkuratnik V.L., Epshtejn S.A. Method of determining thermal resistance of coals. Russian patent № 2593441 (2016). eLibrary ID: 37406896

Abstract Field: metrology. Substance: invention relates to metrology, particularly to means of measuring heat resistance of coals. Method involves applying two successive thermal shocks on coal sample, wherein second shock has higher intensity than the first one, and recording parameters of acoustic emission. Orientation of sample relative to heating source is constant. Recording of parameters of acoustic emission is performed at heating stages, and at the stages of cooling the sample after each of the thermal shocks. Determining the boundaries of time intervals corresponding to regions of peak values of acoustic emission, when its level is not less than one and half times higher than the level of background noise. In each of these intervals average values of acoustic emission activity are calculated. Acoustic emission activity level during the second thermal shock action, which is rendered to sample not containing moisture, indicates the number of damaged structural links, and the same parameter, but during further cooling, indicates the number of the preserved structural links, changing of stressed state to initial state. Then in relation to values of average acoustic emission activity during heating and cooling the coefficient of thermal resistance geomaterial is calculated. Effect: technical result is improvement of reliability and accuracy of measurements.


G. A. Sobolev, A. V. Ponomarev, Y. Y. Maibuk (Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences). Initiation of unstable slips–microearthquakes by elastic impulses. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2016. Vol. 52. No 5. P. 674-691. DOI 10.1134/S106935131605013X. eLibrary ID: 27576219

Abstract A series of laboratory experiments have been carried out with a model of two granite blocks under biaxial compression loading. The experiments are mainly intended for assessing the possibilities of partially releasing the accumulated potential energy. The model was subjected to calibrated mechanical impacts (strokes) which induced elastic impulses. The mechanical stresses, strains, and acoustic emission were recorded. The strokes caused both large slips releasing the stresses down to their initial level and small slips which reduced the stresses by 5–8%. The small slips mostly occurred after the precursory emergence of the low frequency oscillations having low amplitudes. Before the large slips, the stages of speeding-up of the relative motion of the sides of the block contact was observed, similar to those emerging before the natural slips unrelated to the strokes. This feature was not universal: in some cases, the model recovered to the stationary state of the block contact without a large slip. All the slips occurred with a time delay after the stroke. The time delay was shorter when the energy of the blow was higher. With the shorter time delays, the small slip is more likely to occur. The energy of the impacts was by three orders of magnitude lower than the energy accumulated by the model, which points to the triggering mechanism of slip initiation. The series of strokes resulting in the small displacements partially reduced the accumulated energy and prevented the emergence of large motions such as the stick-slip events. If after a series of such blows a large sliding event still occurred, its energy was higher than in the slips unrelated to the impacts. The experiments revealed the difficulties in solving the problem of earthquake hazard reduction by elastic impacts.



V. V. Makarov, A. M. Golosov, L. S. Ksendzenko, N. A. Opanasiuk (Far Eastern Federal University). The mechanism of reversible deformation phenomena in highly stressed rock samples conditions. FEFU: School of Engineering Bulletin. 2015. No 3(24). P. 116-126. https://www.dvfu.ru/upload/medialibrary/bc9/2015-3-13.pdf (full text). eLibrary ID: 24213533 (full text)

Abstract For the first time, attention to the reversible character of linear deformations of rocks was drawn, in all probability, by T.R. Seldenrath and J. Gramberg in 1958. While searching for precursors of deformations, the reversible deformations were determined also by I.S. Tomashevskaya and Ya.N. Khamidullin (1972), who advanced the dilatancy hypothesis. In 1986, K. Tazhibaev pointed to residual stresses as the causes of the reversible deformations. However, as M.A. Guzev and V.M. Makarov stated in 2005, none of the hypotheses can explain the occurring abnormalities in a conclusive way. The present article deals with the reversible deformations investigated by a complex acoustic and deformation method, whereas the results are presented from the position of the self-balanced stresses.


Makarov V.V., Ksendzenko L.S., Golosov A.M., Opanasiuk N.A. (Far Eastern Federal University). About the mechanism of a high stressed rock samples reversible deformation phenomena. Горный информационно-аналитический бюллетень (научно-технический журнал). 2015. № S3. С. 3-15. eLibrary ID: 24843466 (full text)

Abstract Attention to the reversible character of linear deformations of rock samples was presented, apparently, for the first time in (Seldenrath & Gramberg 1958). The authors did not research the mechanisms of the origination of the deformation anomalies, but already in subsequent works such attempts have begun to be undertaken. So the reversible character of the deformations of rocks was contacted with a barrel-shaped straining of samples at uniaxial compression (Tomashevskaya & Khamidullin 1972). In the works of other researchers, residual stresses were proposed in the capacity of reasons for deformation anomalies of various types (Tazhibaev 1986). However, these hypotheses are not supported by critics on closer examination (Guzev & Makarov 2007). In this paper, based on specially developed complex research methods, including on deformation, acoustical and mathematical methods, the authors analyse deformation anomalies of reversible types in samples of rocks at uniaxial compression, define the mechanism of their origin, and develop a mathematical model of the phenomenon.


G. A. Bigus, A. A. Travkin (Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow; Research and Education Center on Welding and Testing, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow). An evaluation of the flaw-detection characteristics for the detection of fatigue cracks by the acoustic-emission method in samples made of steel 20 that have a cast structure. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2015. Vol. 51. No 1. P. 32-38. DOI 10.1134/S1061830915010027. eLibrary ID: 23994180

Abstract The results of experimental studies on the behavior of fatigue damage in the course of cyclic and static tests using the acoustic-emission method are presented. When performing research works, samples with a stress concentrator that has a steel 20 cast structure were exposed to cyclic loading. The process of the fatigue crack propagation was recorded by two acoustic emission transducers. The composition of the wave packet of the acoustic-emission signal generated by the crack growth was determined and changes in its spectral characteristics were recorded. The samples with fatigue damage were subjected to static tests. The flaw-detection characteristics for the detection of a fatigue crack during static tests were given. A fractographic analysis of the fractures that established the connection with the acoustic-emission data was carried out.


Boreiko D.A., Bykov I.Y., Smirnov A.L. (Ukhta State Technical University, Ukhta; OOO ExpertStroy, Ukhta). The sensitivity of the acoustic-emission method during the detection of flaws in pipes. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2015. Т. 51. № 8. С. 476-485. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830915080021. eLibrary ID: 24962336

Abstract A method for determining the sensitivity of acoustic-emission inspection during the detection of flaws of different sizes is presented. According to the method, the sensitivity is determined as the detection probability of through holes of a certain size during the axial compression of 09Γ2C steel cylindrical pipes. The obtained sensitivity of the acoustic-emission method is compared with the wellknown data on the sensitivity of the ultrasonic, capillary, and radiographic nondestructive-testing methods.


A. S. Voznesensky, Y. O. Kutkin, M. N. Krasilov. Interrelation of the acoustic Q-factor and strength in limestone. Journal of Mining Science. 2015. Vol. 51. No 1. P. 23-30. DOI 10.1134/S1062739115010044. eLibrary ID: 24939561

Abstract Under analysis is the experimental testing of interrelation between the limit of strength and the acoustic Q-factor in terms of Kasimov deposit limestone. The limit of strength is found using two procedures, namely, direct method and interpolation, which are compared. The authors illustrate the advantage of the acoustic Q-factor procedure in assessment of damage and residual strength of rocks as against the method of elastic wave velocities. The resultant relations can be used in assessment of residual strength and remaining life of pillars and roofs in underground excavations.


Nikolenko P.V., Kormnov A.A., Shkuratnik V.L. Method of study of stressed state of rocks mass. Russian patent № 2557287 (2015). eLibrary ID: 37434837

Abstract Field: instrumentation. Substance: invention relates to mining and is intended to determine direction of maximum stress in structural elements of the development systems relatively to the drilled test wells. Method includes installation in the vertical well of the rod acoustic line, on which rigidly the contacting with well walls ring is installed, and registration of the acoustic emission (AE) at the acoustic line end projecting from the well. In mass in same horizontal plane with the test well and parallel to it additionally at least three wells are drilled, in each well the acoustic line with ring similar to the located in the first well are installed. All rings are made out of lamellar composite material with anisotropic structure in the ring plane, and orientation angle of the ring layers in each next well is increased by 15° relatively to the previous. As per AE signals registered at each acoustic line the corresponding relationships of total count vs. Time are determined, the acoustic line with total count of AE drop with time is determined. According to the direction of layers in the ring in this acoustic line the direction of maximum stress occurred in the mass in plane of the orthogonal axis of the measuring well is determined. Effect: assurance of the possibility of determination of the maximum stress acting orthogonally to the measuring well.


Novikov E.A., Shkuratnik V.L. Method of determining stress in rock mass. Russian patent № 2557288 (2015). eLibrary ID: 37434838

Abstract Field: mining operations. Substance: invention relates to mining operations and can be used to determine the stresses in the rock mass. The method in which the samples are recovered from the mass in the direction coinciding with the direction of the maximum main stress present in it. They are exposed to volumetric heating from 20 to 570°C, then they are left for cooling to a temperature of 140-150°C, the activity of acoustic emission is recorded simultaneously. The ratio of the amplitudes enveloping the acoustic emission activity is determined, occurring during cooling and heating, according to which the reaching by the stress at the test sites of the mass of the load level is determined, equal to or greater than 0.9 times the compressive strength of the rock, representing the transition of the latter to the stage of pre-destruction. Effect: determining the fact of exceeding by the value of the maximum main stress of the critical level equal to or greater than 0,9 times the compressive strength σcom that indicates the transition of the rock to the stage of pre-destruction.


Steblev Y.I., Susarev S.V. Bykov D.E. The Principles of Designing Automated Systems for Diagnostic Monitoring of the Engineering Structures of Hazardous Production Objects. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2015. Т. 51. № 4. С. 185-197. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830915040063. eLibrary ID: 23985153

Abstract This article considers the basic principles of designing systems for monitoring engineering structures (SMESs) of hazardous production facilities, which have been formed based on the implementation of engineering designs of the SMESs of a number of large industrial oil-refining facilities. The proposed principles for designing SMESs as complex information diagnostic systems are based on strict logical structuring of huge volumes of information on monitoring objects: design documentation for the object itself and the automated process control system (APCS), safety and metrological provision requirements, and normative and technical documentation. It is shown that the basic stages and principles of SMES design can be formalized and logically described using the instrument of structural schemes.


V. L. Shkuratnik, E. A. Novikov. Influence of the mechanical loading of rock salt on the parameters of thermoacoustic emission. Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics. 2015. Vol. 56. No 3. P. 486-493. DOI 10.1134/S0021894415030190. eLibrary ID: 24941864

Abstract This paper presents the results of experimental studies of acoustic emission occurring in rock-salt samples due to their local and volumetric heating under static mechanical loading preceding heating or occurring simultaneously with it. Thermoacoustic emission (TAE) parameters in rock salt depending on its structural heterogeneity were determined. Patterns of change in the TAE activity in test samples of the geomaterial under volumetric heating and subsequent cooling for different values of mechanical preloading were established. The established patterns can be used to predict the fracture of solid rock salt from results of measurement of a TAE in an extracted core.



S. I. Builo, D. M. Kuznetsov, V. L. Gaponov (Research Institute of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don; Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don; Power Engineering and Machine-Building Institute, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don). Acoustic emission testing of capillary liquid flows in porous media. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2014. Vol. 50. No 7. P. 392-395. DOI 10.1134/S1061830914070031. eLibrary ID: 24002169

Abstract A time history of the parameters of acoustic emissions (Aes) in the process of a capillary liquid flowing in a porous medium is considered. The application of exponentially damping process to the impregnation processes is experimentally established. A method for testing the impregnation depth and completeness of materials based on AE measurement data is proposed.


Gornostaev A.I., Deev A.A., Tishin A.A. Method of tribosystem burn-in. Russian patent № 2516345 (2014). eLibrary ID: 37798395

Abstract Field: testing equipment. Substance: invention relates to methods of tribotechnical tests, in particular, to burn-in investigations. Substance: tribosystem is lubricated, friction is carried out, and it is loaded by a stepped external load to achievement of maximum loading capacity. The range of tribosystem loading is controlled by parameters of discrete and continuous acoustic emission in a certain range of frequencies, reflecting frequency and nature of capturing moments, and also variation of structural characteristics of friction surfaces in process of their burn-in. The main information parameters of the acoustic-emission signal are spectral density, amount of emissions and signal amplitude. Effect: improved quality of tribosystem burn-in, increased accuracy and efficiency of feedback for maintenance of specified friction mode in process of burn-in.


R. A. Lementueva, N. Y. Bubnova, A. V. Treusov (Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences). Dynamical features of fracture formation. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2014. Vol. 50. No 1. P. 32-37. DOI 10.1134/S1069351313060098. eLibrary ID: 21862378

Abstract We analyze the results of a series of experiments on studying the dynamical pattern of fracture growth. The failure of the rocks under long loading with the use of nonexplosive demolition agent (NDA) is studied. Due to the long (about 2 days) loading, the experiment closely reproduces the natural conditions. It is shown that a single center of failure is absent. The coordinates of the sources of acoustic emission are calculated. The failure zone where the fracture is formed is identified. The combined analysis of the migration of strong acoustic events (Acmax) with the determination of their coordinates together with the deformation observations provide an insight into the kinetics of evolution of the source zone.


Makhutov N.A., Permjakov V.N., Aleksandrov P.A., Ivanov V.I., Novoselov V.V., Vasil’ev I.E., Spasibov V.M. Method of analysing strains and stresses in fragile strain indicators. Russian patent № 2505780 (2014). eLibrary ID: 37440543

Abstract Field: instrumentation. Substance: sound emission measurements of signals indicating fracture formation in fragile strained coat. Note here that additionally measured is the concentration of aerosol concentration in near-surface layer of fragile strained coat. At stress variation rate of up to 0.1 kN/s with allowance for 30 second correction for recording delay, oxide film and substrate destruction is revealed. Effect: limiting state is diagnosed, early warning of structure destruction under bench and natural test conditions.


Makhutov N.A., Permjakov V.N., Aleksandrov P.A., Ivanov V.I., Novoselov V.V. Method of recording fractures in fragile strain indicators. Russian patent № 2505779 (2014). eLibrary ID: 37440542

Abstract Field: instrumentation. Substance: sound emission measurements of signals indicating fracture formation in fragile strained coat with additional measurement of aerosol concentration in near-surface layer of fragile stained coat are carried out. Concentration of micro particles depending on oxide film depth is defined by the formula: Ω=Kδ·lg(δ/δ10), where δ10 is oxide film minimum depth arbitrary taken to make 10 mcm; Kδ is the factor defined by strain indicator film depth and determined by experiments. Effect: possibility to record structural material reconfiguration long before destruction.


Shkuratnik V.L., Nikolenko P.V., Tsarikov A.Ju. Method of determining change of stress state of rock mass in vicinity of working. Russian patent №2532817 (2014). eLibrary ID: 37455110

Abstract Field: mining. Substance: invention relates to mining and is designed to determine the change in the stress state of the rock mass. The method comprises placement in the well of the hollow cylindrical acoustic line, receiving and analysis of parameters of ultrasonic signals propagating in it by means of the acoustic emission transducers mounted on its end surfaces. Preliminarily on the acoustic line coaxially with it and at some distance from each other at least two rings of textolite are fixed, which inner diameter coincides with the diameter of the acoustic line, and the outer – with the well diameter. Deformation of the well due to the shift of the reference pressure zone, results in deformation of the respective textolite rings and, respectively, the growth of acoustic-emission activity in these discs. The difference in time of arrival to the receiving transducers of those acoustic emission signals is measured, the amplitude of which is maximum of all incoming signals, and the depth of the zone of the reference pressure and its change in time is judged by the above mentioned time difference, the known length of the acoustic line and the measured rate of propagation of ultrasound in it. Effect: increase in duration of the definition of changes in the stress state of rock mass in the vicinity of working during continuous monitoring acoustic-emission measurements of movement deeper into the solid mass of the zone of reference pressure.



A. M. Golosov, V. V. Makarov (School of Engineering, Far Eastern Federal University). The system of reliable deformational precursors of highly stressed rock samples failure. FEFU: School of Engineering Bulletin. 2013. No 4(17). P. 90-102. https://www.dvfu.ru/upload/medialibrary/d7f/2013-4-13.pdf (полный текст). eLibrary ID: 21329470 (full text)

Abstract Phenomena of anomalous deformation of rocks compressed up to failure have been studied in the laboratory on rock samples. A system of reliable deformational precursors of the failure stage has been developed. The system includes long-term, middle-term and short-term precursors. The threshold of dilatancy and the turning point of deformational curve are recognized as long-term precursor. The middle-term precursor is determined as a point of the increment sign change of the specific volume deformation. The short-term precursor is characterized by the specific volume deformation increments jump. The acoustic emission research method had been used to control the deformational and failure process. There was a tight correlation between the deformational precursors system of failure and the mesocracking process under the loading. Mathematical model of self equilibrium stresses had been successfully used to describe the anomalous deformations distribution.


Botvina L.R., Levin V.P., Tyutin M.R., Zharkova N.A., Dobatkin S.V., Morozov A.V., Ozerskii O.N. Wear mechanisms of structural steels and effect of wear on their mechanical and acoustic properties during tension. Journal of Friction and Wear. 2013. Vol. 34. No 1. P. 6-13. DOI 10.3103/S1068366613010030. eLibrary ID: 20432676

Abstract Optical and scanning electron microscopy have been used to study the wear mechanisms of structural steels with various structures and strengths, as well as to assess their mechanical and acoustic properties after friction. The prevailing wear mechanisms have been revealed; they are governed by the strength and structure of the steels and involve the refinement and rotation of grains, the formation of parallel rows of microcracks, the strain dissolution of cementite, and martensitic transformation, as well as the formation of seizure sites in the friction contact zone, shear and intergranular pores, and microcracks. The low-carbon steel with a ultrafine-grained structure has demonstrated a high wear resistance. Friction for 3000 h had a weak effect on the mechanical properties of the steels during tension.


S. I. Builo, P. G. Ivanochkin, N. A. Myasnikova (Vorovich Research Institute of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, Southern Federal University; Southern Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don; Rostov State Transport University, Rostov-on-Don). Diagnostics of critical points of the friction coefficient of a multilayer nanomodified antifriction coating by an acoustic emission technique. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2013. Vol. 49. No 6. P. 318-322. DOI 10.1134/S1061830913060028. eLibrary ID: 21878765

Abstract The dynamics of the changing parameter of the acoustic emission (AE) in the course of tests of a multilayer nanomodified antifriction coating are considered. The results of investigating the shape and the spectra of AE pulses in different regions of the experimental curve of the dependence of the friction coefficient on the test time are reported. A method is proposed for establishing the transition points from the steady-state stage to the failure and friction-without-coating stages according to the intensity of the restored AE event stream, the spectral distribution, and the amplitude of the concurrent acoustic emission in the ultrasonic-frequency range.


Makhutov N.A., Fomin A.V., Ivanov V.I., Permyakov V.N., Vasil’ev I.E. Integrated diagnostics of limit states and early warning of emergency conditions of structures. Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability. 2013. Vol. 42. No 2. P. 109-113. DOI 10.3103/S105261881302009X. eLibrary ID: 26912438

Abstract The new nondestructive testing technique for diagnostics of limit states and early warning of structural failure possibilities based on using oxide strain indicators and an acoustic emission system is presented. Refinement of the technique was carried out by tensile testing of samples made of B95 alloy.


Permjakov V.N., Chijanov E.V., Grebnev A.N., Sidel'nikov S.N. Deformation and stress analysis method. Russian patent №2492463 (2013). eLibrary ID: 37516001

Abstract Field: electricity. Substance: brittle strain-sensitive coating is deposited on the surface of an article; the coating is hardened; the article is loaded and the area and direction of plastic deformations are determined from the formed cracks using acoustic emission sensors. The brittle strain-sensitive coating used is a caramel-based coating made from a mixture containing water and sugar, with the following ratio of components, wt %: water 65-75, sugar 25-35. Effect: enabling determination of stress and deformation using brittle coatings, eliminating harmful effect on the environment.


V. L. Shkuratnik, P. V. Nikolenko. Using acoustic emission memory of composites in critical stress control in rock masses. Journal of Mining Science. 2013. Vol. 49. No 4. P. 544-549. DOI 10.1134/S1062739149040035. eLibrary ID: 21903074

Abstract The regular patterns of initiation and show of acoustic emission memory effect in a composite are experimentally obtained from tests on cloth laminate. The authors illustrate the capacity of cloth laminate as an absolute sensitive stress-to-acoustic emission converter. The designed and tested in-hole sensor enclosing this converter indicates when incremental stress surpasses a pre-assigned critical limit.


Shkuratnik V.L., Nikolenko P.V., Korchak A.V. Method to determine variation of stressed condition of rock massif. Russian patent № 2485314 (2013). eLibrary ID: 37512080

Abstract Field: mining. Substance: method includes installation of a cylindrical acoustic line in a well, reception and analysis of parameters of ultrasonic signals that spread in it. Previously on the acoustic line coaxially with it and at a certain distance from each other, at least two textolite rings are fixed, the inner diameter of which matches the diameter of the acoustic line, and the outer one – the well diameter. Each of them is exposed to individual level of mechanical loading in identical direction matching the diameter. At the same time the acoustic line is placed in the well so that this direction matches the direction of maximum primary stress in the massif. Variation of stressed condition is seen by spasmodic increase of growth steepness of total count of ultrasonic signals of acoustic emission arising in textolite rings received from the acoustic line. Effect: provision of high sensitivity and production of quantitative estimates when determining variation of stressed condition of rock massif.


Shkuratnik V.L., Nikolenko P.V., Ruban A.D., Kormnov A.A. Method to determine stresses in rock massif. Russian patent № 2478785 (2013). eLibrary ID: 37508575

Abstract Field: mining. Substance: method is based on using an acoustic emission memory effect in composite materials. A measurement device is formed by means of installation of two packets in a measurement well, between which epoxide resin is injected with a hardener and a filler of quartz sand. After resin hardening and completion of massif recovery deformations, the device is drilled with a circular slot, removed from the massif and cut into even discs. Produced discs are tested at press equipment under conditions of uniaxial compression with simultaneous registration of total count of impulses of acoustic emission, besides, each subsequent disc is turned by a fixed angle. As a result of tests the dependence is identified with maximum increase of acoustic emission count speed steepness as a certain level of test load is achieved, and on the basis of this level the maximum stress available in the massif is identified, and on the basis of the disc rotation angle the azimuthal angle of the specified stress action is determined. Effect: higher accuracy and reduced labour intensiveness of detection of value and direction of maximum stress in a massif, acting in plane of orthogonal axis of a measurement well.


Shkuratnik V.L., Novikov E.A. Method of controlling quality of materials by acoustic emission. Russian patent № 2478947 (2013). eLibrary ID: 37508636

Abstract Field: physics. Substance: loading is carried out and signals arising from acoustic emission are detected, from which presence of crack-like defects is determined, wherein the material is loaded by heating in a temperature range from 30°C to 200°C; the activity envelope of resultant acoustic emission signals is selected and presence of crack-like defects is determined from the presence of extremum values of said envelope of not less than one and a half times greater than the value of the envelope at boundaries of said temperature range. Effect: high reliability and easier detection of crack-like defects in rocky geomaterials.


Shkuratnik V.L., Novikov E.A. Method of inspecting quality of sample material by acoustic emission. Russian patent № 2494389 (2013). eLibrary ID: 37517032

Abstract Field: physics. Substance: sample is subjected to thermal action with rising temperature and resultant acoustic emission signals in the sample are detected, wherein the thermal action is applied to a series of same-type samples made from the same material to temperature of 90°C and for each sample, the average value of acoustic emission activity in the 30-90°C range is determined; each of the series of samples is subjected to monoaxial mechanical loading, results of which are used to determine its ultimate compression strength; a calibration curve is plotted, which describes the relationship between the average acoustic emission activity and the ultimate compression strength of the material for the entire series of test samples, from which strength of the material of retested samples of the same type is determined from their average thermoacoustic emission activity in the range from 30°C to 90°C. Effect: enabling determination of the ultimate strength of hard rock samples without destruction thereof.


Shkuratnik V.L., Novikov E.A., Kormnov A.A. Acoustic emission method of controlling quality of materials on samples. Russian patent № 2492464 (2013). eLibrary ID: 37516002

Abstract Field: physics. Substance: mechanical stress is generated by heating a local region of a sample lying equidistant from its top and bottom end surfaces and parallel thereto to 90°C; acoustic emission signals propagating from the heated local region are received at each of said surfaces; curves of total count of said signals versus time are plotted, on which values corresponding to the time when the rise of said curves stops are selected, and the ratio of least value to the greatest value is used to determine presence of crack defects and location thereof relative the heated local region. Effect: high reliability and easier detection of crack defects in samples of rock geomaterials, enabling estimation of the location of said defects relative the centre of the sample.



Shkuratnik V.L., Nikolenko P.V., Ruban A.D., Kormnov A.A. Method to manufacture piezoelectric pressure gauge. Russian patent № 2439514 (2012). eLibrary ID: 37484129

Abstract Field: instrument making. Substance: piezoelements with electrodes are placed between a base and a force-transferring element. The produced piezopacket is tightened with an effort in a thin-walled jacket, which is coupled and welded along the perimeter at one end to the base, and at the other one – to the force-transferring element. Prior to assembly of the piezopacket each piezoelement it comprises is exposed to static mechanical loading with pressure individual for each piezoelement and exceeding pressure, to which piezoelements are exposed when tightened into the piezopacket. Effect: increased accuracy of measuring slowly rising preset values of static pressures.


V. L. Shkuratnik, E. A. Novikov. Physical modeling of the grain size influence on acoustic emission in the heated geomaterials. Journal of Mining Science. 2012. Vol. 48. No 1. P. 9-14. DOI 10.1134/S1062739148010029. eLibrary ID: 17987308

Abstract Physical modeling of deformation of a hardening composite sample with a filler made of quartz sand with different grain sizes has established a relation between the acoustic emission parameters in the heated geomaterial, its grain size and strength. Anomalous acoustic emission has been revealed within definite heating temperature ranges, correlating the geomaterial strength in the first case and with the geomaterial grain size in the second case. The resultant experimental relation between the strength and grain size of agrees with the Hall-Petch relation.



Sagajdak A.I. Method to determine ultimate limit state of building structures. Russian patent №2417369 (2011). eLibrary ID: 37745798

Abstract Field: construction. Substance: method includes placement of acoustic emission sensors, recording a flow of acoustic emission signals parametres, formation of samples, definition of statistic parametres and assessment of structure state according to variation of acoustic emission parametres. At that the acoustic emission sensors are installed on a concrete structure surface, and parametres are recorded in process of damages accumulation, main statistic parametres of acoustic emission and normalised entropy are defined in each sample, and their numerical values are used to build a linear dependence, specific for a zone that corresponds to appearance of cracks in the structure with opening width from 0.3 to 0.5 mm, and whenever its angle of inclination changes by 90° and more, the ultimate limit state of the structure is detected. Effect: making it possible to analyse accumulation of damages in process of operation and detection of the structure ultimate limit state.


G. A. Sobolev, A. V. Ponomarev (Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences). Dynamics of fluid-triggered fracturing in the models of a geological medium. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2011. Vol. 47. No 10. P. 902-918. DOI 10.1134/S1069351311100119. eLibrary ID: 18007569

Abstract Implications of infusion of small (compared to the pore space) amounts of water for the dynamics of fracturing are studied in the laboratory experiments on the models of a heterogeneous geological medium. Variations in the acoustic emission that precede macrofracture are analyzed, including as candidate precursors. In all experiments, the macrofracture had occurred not immediately after the mechanical loading or water infusion but with a time-delay after a period of acoustic quiescence and subsequent activation. The enhancement in acoustic activity preceding macrofracture is well reproduced by the exponential law; the correlation between the actual number of events (or the released energy) and the exponential approximation exceeds the 95% confidence level. The power law is slightly worse although also a confident approximation of the acoustic emission process. The facts of subsequent occurrence of quiescence and activation suggest that, in principle, this phenomenon can be used as a precursory signature in the prediction of macrofracturing.



Sergiev B.P., Musatov V.V. (CC «GIAP-DISTcenter», Moscow). Support of the capital equipment of oil refining, petrochemical and chemical complex enterprises in conditions of the increased inter-repair interval with the help of non destroying control means. Proc.10th ECNDT, Moscow, 2010. https://www.ndt.net/article/ecndt2010/reports/4_01_23.pdf (full text)

S. I. Builo, D. M. Kuznetsov (Vorovich Institute of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don; State Academy of Agricultural Machine Building, Rostov-on-Don). Acoustic-emission testing and diagnostics of the kinetics of physicochemical processes in liquid media. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2010. Vol. 46. No 9. P. 684-689. DOI 10.1134/S1061830910090081. eLibrary ID: 16809239

Abstract The parameters of acoustic emission (AE) generated during crystal growth and dissolution are described. An explanation of detected radiation is proposed within the framework of the hypothesis of beats during the summation of a large number of vibrations with similar frequencies, which can be generated by both suprapremolecular water complexes and individual molecules. The fundamental possibility of evaluating the kinetics of crystallization, dissolution, and melting processes on the basis of data from AE investigations is shown.


Bykov S.P., Kuznetsov K.A., Jushin A.V., Skrjabikov I.N. Method of determining distance between converter and source of acoustic emission. Russian patent № 2397490 (2010). eLibrary ID: 37733253

Abstract Field: physics. Substance: acoustic emission converter is mounted on the inspected object. The object is loaded. Acoustic emission signals generated by a defect in the object are received and Lamb wave modes are picked up in form of a wave packet. The time-frequency characteristic is obtained on spectrograms, after which energy maxima of antisymmetric and symmetric modes are picked up. The distance between the converter and the source of acoustic emission is calculated from the difference in arrival time of energy maxima on the selected frequencies. Effect: increased reliability and information content when determining the distance between a converter and a source of acoustic emission, and increased noise immunity.


Sobolev G.A., Ponomarev A.V., Maibuk Y.Y., Zakrzhevskaya N.A., Ponyatovskaya V.I., Sobolev D.G., Khromov A.A., Tsyvinskaya Y.V. (Institute of the Earth Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The dynamics of the acoustic emission with water initiation. Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 2010. Vol. 46. No 2. P. 136-153. DOI 10.1134/S1069351310020035. eLibrary ID: 15326246

Abstract The long-term experiments on the biaxial compression of the models prepared from basalt sand, crushed limestone, and cement are carried out. The volume of the models exceeded 4 × 103 cm3. At different grades of load, water was infused into the model through the borehole. The volume of the infused water was less than 0.1% of the volume of the model itself. Water infusion resulted in the activation of the acoustic emission with a particular time lag. The initiation of the acoustic emission is connected with the local reduction in the strength and with the increase in the stresses near the metastable, which does not contradict the trigger mechanism. The hypocenters of the sources of acoustic signals initiated by water infusion lay in the vicinity of the boreholes. Within the time interval between weak events, pulses with higher energy appeared, which has an analogy with the swarm of earthquakes. The growth and extinction of the acoustic emission after the stepwise additional load and with the initiation by water infusion is significantly different. In the first case, the Omori law is obeyed. In the second case, the intensity of acoustic emission has a pronounced maximum. The equations of the kinetic concept of strength in solids make it possible to describe the dynamics of the acoustic emission caused by water infusion.



B. I. Zavoichinsky, E. B. Zavoichinskaya (Lomonosov MGU). Remaining life of gas pipeline structural elements assessed by technical and operating security diagnostics. GAS Industry of Russia. 2009. No 1. P. 34-37. eLibrary ID: 13105280

Abstract Adequate operating status of gas pipeline structural elements is typically ensured by routine diagnostics and assessment of remaining service life. This paper highlights the key technical goals of diagnostics and theoretical fundamentals of longevity assessments given the stringent industry requirements to operating security of hazardous facilities such as gas pipelines.


Akopyan V. A. (Vorovich Institute of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, Southern Federal University). Deformation criterion of the prefracture state of truss-structure elements and an acoustic-emission resonance technique on their basis. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2009. Vol. 45. No 3. P. 164-170. DOI 10.1134/S1061830909030036. eLibrary ID: 13606480

Abstract The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the prefracture state of truss-structure elements with a cut determined by finite-element analysis of the resonance frequencies and modes of forced vibrations, which are associated with the time history of the acoustic-emission parameters, are given. The natural frequencies of plane vibration modes of a delta-shaped truss-structure element most sensitive to changes in the geometrical dimensions (the depth and angle of opening) of a cut are determined. A relationship between the angle of the cut opening and the value of displacements (accelerations) at the truss-structure model points adjacent to the cut is formulated. It is shown that the angle of the cut opening, calculated using this relationship, is completely a deformation criterion of the prefracture state of structures. The values of resonance frequencies of forced vibrations of structure elements at which the critical angle is reached and over which intense cracking begins are found.


S. V. Vil’yaminov, A. S. Voznesensky, V. V. Nabatov, V. L. Shkuratnik (Moscow State Mining University, Moscow). Regularities and mechanisms of thermal acoustic emission in gypseous rocks. Journal of Mining Science. 2009. Vol. 45. No 6. P. 533-540. DOI 10.1007/s10913-009-0067-9. eLibrary ID: 15303007

Abstract The regularities and mechanisms of acoustic emission in gypseous rocks under heating are considered. Experimental data are interpreted by the thermal gravimetrical and differential thermal analyses. The applicability of thermoacoustic effects to identifying gypseous rocks and evaluating percentage of different minerals in them is verified.


Permjakov V.N., Makhutov N.A., Khajrullina L.B. Method of examination of strains and deformations. Russian patent №2345324 (2009). eLibrary ID: 37543393

Abstract Field: physics, measuring. Substance: invention concerns examination of strains and deformations and can be used for examination of strains and deformations in details, for example, in devices of metal constructions of engineering constructions. On explored surface of detail superimpose fragile strain-sensing coat. In addition carry out installation of the module with data units of transformers of an acoustic emission. As a fragile coat use a coat on the basis of the artificial tars, containing resorcinol-formaldehyde tar of SF-282 with addition of carbamide-formaldehyde concentrate CFC-85. As a hardener of the liquid carbamide-formaldehyde concentrate use a water solution of formalin, ethyleneglycol and carboxymethyl cellulose, and hexamethylenalnine. Effect: increase of accuracy and efficiency of examination.



Belozerov V.V., Bosyj S.I., Bujlo S.I., Prus Ju.V., Udovichenko Ju.I. Method for thermodynamic acoustic-emission standardisation and system for realising said method. Russian patent №2399910 (2010). eLibrary ID: 37704973

Abstract Field: physics. Substance: signal simulator used is in form of at least micro-weighing chemically pure substances inside sealed cavities of a thermoacoustic waveguide rod (TAWR) with acoustic emission (AE) and temperature sensors, where the mass of said substances is determined with maximum accuracy and said substances have reversible anhysteretic temperature and energy of phase transitions (PT) of the first type (crystallisation/melting, evaporation/condensation), from which, in each cycle for heating and (or) cooling a sample in contact with the TAWR, by receiving AE signals of said PT and by simultaneously measuring contact temperature of the TAWR with the sample at PT points, temperature measurement channels and AE (sensors-amplifiers-converters) as a whole are checked and calibrated from temperature and energy characteristics of the PT of the first type of built-in thermodynamic acoustic-emission (TDAE) standards, by changing amplification coefficients or (and) threshold of sensitivity of measurement channels, or (and) amplitude-frequency characteristics (AFC) of temperature, electric and acoustic signal converters or (and) corresponding corrections when converting digital data to physical parameters. Possibility of TDAE standardisation is provided, which enables metrological support for thermal and (or) acoustic-emission analysis installations through dynamic and static inspection of their temperature and acoustic measurement channels. Effect: increased reliability and accuracy of determining temperature and energy characteristics, stages for destruction of materials.


Belozerov V.V., Bujlo S.I., Prus Ju.V. Combined thermogravimetric and acoustic-emission method for determining stages of thermodestruction of substances and materials, and device for implementation of method. Russian patent № 2324923 (2008). eLibrary ID: 37654037

Abstract Field: thermal analysis. Substance: method and device involve placement of a weight of substance or material under study in a ceramic crucible and heating of the crucible until loss of mass is finished. In the course of heating, temperature, mass and derivative of mass with respect to time or temperature are measured, and, at the same time, signals of acoustic emission accompanying accumulation of structure defects under action of temperature are received. Then, from the obtained relationships of temperature, mass and derivative of mass with respect to time and from registered acoustic emission parameters, thermodestruction process stages and fire hazard indices are determined. Effect: improved reliability and accuracy in determining the stages of thermodestruction of substances and materials as well as basic fire hazard indices: temperatures of melting, sublimation, pyrolysis, inflammation, formation of coke residue.


S. I. Builo, V. V. Belozerov, S. P. Zinchenko, I. G. Ivanov. Excitation of acoustic emission by laser radiation for studies of structural alterations in composites and polymers. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2008. Vol. 44. No 9. P. 615-620. DOI 10.1134/S1061830908090040. eLibrary ID: 13584658

Abstract The special features of excitation of acoustic emission (AE) by laser radiation are studied. It has been found that ruby and copper-vapor lasers reliably excite AE with an amplitude high enough to be detected. It has been shown that AE parameters of polymers have a significant sensitivity to the type of laser irradiation used for initiating local thermal destruction. The results can be used for remote acoustic calibration and initiation of local thermal destruction during AE diagnostics of thermal stability of polymers and composite materials.


S. I. Builo, V. V. Belozerov, Yu. V. Prus. Combined thermogravimetric and acoustic-emission diagnostics of stages of thermal destruction of substances and materials. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2008. Vol. 44. No 3. P. 212-214. DOI 10.1134/S1061830908030078. eLibrary ID: 13573797

Abstract The possibilities and limits of existing methods of estimating the thermophysical stability of substances and materials are analyzed. A combined method of thermogravimetric and acoustic-emission (AE) diagnostics of stages of thermal destruction is proposed. It is shown that combination of existing thermal analysis and AE methods leads to an increase in the accuracy and reliability of data on degradation processes in materials under the action of temperature.



V. L. Shkuratnik, S. V. Kuchurin, V. A. Vinnikov. Regularities of acoustic emission and thermoemission memory effect in coal specimens under varying thermal conditions. Journal of Mining Science. 2007. Vol. 43. No 4. P. 394-403. DOI 10.1007/s10913-007-0038-y. eLibrary ID: 13555728

Abstract The experimental data on acoustic emission regularities are presented for specimens of different genetic coal types exposed to a wide range of cyclic heating modes. Peculiarities of formation and manifestation of thermal-emission memory effect depending on amplitude and duration of the thermal-field action are revealed.


V. L. Shkuratnik, Yu. L. Filimonov, S. V. Kuchurin. Features of the Kaiser effect in coal specimens at different stages of the triaxial axisymmetric deformation. Journal of Mining Science. 2007. Vol. 43. No 1. P. 1-7. DOI 10.1007/s10913-007-0001-y. eLibrary ID: 13548889

Abstract The experimental data are presented for the features of formation and manifestation of the acousto-emission and deformation memory effects in specimens of anthracite at different stages of the triaxial cyclic deformation by the Karman scheme in the pre-limiting and post-limiting zones.



V. L. Shkuratnik, S. V. Kuchurin, Yu. L. Filimonov. Acoustic emission memory effect in coal samples under uniaxial cyclic loading. Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics. 2006. Vol. 47. No 2. P. 236-240. DOI 10.1007/s10808-006-0048-6. eLibrary ID: 13527327

Abstract This paper gives results from experimental studies of the acoustic emission and strain memory effects in anthracite samples under cyclic loading. Trends and regularities were found in the formation and manifestation of the acoustic emission memory effect of coal in nonmonotonic uniaxial tests.



V. Volkovas, V. Dorosevas, V. I. El’manovich, D. V. Bagmutov. Methodological aspects of assessment of the strength and residual service life of pressurized vessels based on acoustic-emission diagnostics. Russ J Nondestruct Test 40, 753–762 (2004). DOI: 10.1007/s11181-005-0054-4

Abstract The state-of-the-art in acoustic-emission diagnostics of pressurized vessels is analyzed. It is shown that the widely used qualitative relationship between nondestructive testing methods and the science of material strength can be replaced with a quantitative relationship based on specially organized non-destructive testing procedures carried out when the object being tested is operated. Based on a number of examples, in which the state of pressurized vessels subject to low-temperature hydrogen (hydrogen sulfide) corrosion and to pitting corrosion is assessed, the main concepts and options of the suggested methods are described. Results of the assessment of the residual service life of some vessels are presented. The conducted research shows that a new regulatory framework needs to be developed for assessing the operability of expensive equipment in oil-refining and petrochemical plants on the basis of acoustic-emission diagnostics, applied fracture mechanics, and risk analysis.


Sagajdak A.I. Technique controlling positions of fittings in reinforced concrete structures. Russian patent №2222008 (2004). eLibrary ID: 37934968

Abstract Field: civil engineering, nondestructive testing of building reinforced concrete structures. Substance: technique controlling positions of fittings in reinforced concrete structure consists in placement of transducers on concrete surface of structure, determination of coordinates of positions of fittings in body of concrete. Location group of transducers of acoustic emission is placed on surface of structure, surface layer of concrete is broken locally, sources of acoustic emission are recorded and their volume coordinates are established and used to make judgment on positions of fittings in structure. Effect: reduced labor input to process of determination of coordinates of positions of fitting in body of concrete, increased measurement accuracy.



Miseiko A.N., Sazonov A.A. (OAO ORGENERGONEFT, Samara Branch, Samara). Use of the acoustic emission method for detecting corrosive damages of technological pipelines. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing. 2003. Т. 39. № 6. С. 453-458. DOI: 10.1023/B:RUNT.0000011626.77162.fe. eLibrary ID: 13439589

Abstract An example of testing a technological pipeline using the acoustic emission method is described. Increased corrosive activity zones are detected and an attempt of estimating the sources with the use of criteria which have not been used earlier for estimating the corrosive attack (local dynamic Ivanov–Bykov criterion) is made.


Sagajdak A.I. Method of quality control of building structure concreting. Russian patent № 2206088 (2003). eLibrary ID: 37914593

Abstract Field: construction engineering. Substance: method includes installation of transducers group into freshly placed concrete mix; registration of coordinates of sources of acoustic emission signals in bulk of hardening concrete; determination of concreting quality by detection of areas nonfilled with concrete by absence of coordinates of signals. Offered method provides for high accuracy in determination of sizes and locations of defective sections in structure. As quality control is made at early stages of concrete setting, offered method allows prompt correction of defected defects of concreting. Effect: higher efficiency of method.



Krasnov A.A., Gnetnev Ju.I., Konon A.V., Minaev A.D. Acoustic emission system for diagnostics of industrial objects. Russian patent № 2168169 (2001). eLibrary ID: 37866755

Abstract Field: nondestructive testing of materials of articles by signals of acoustic emission. Substance: invention can be used for diagnostics of technical condition of pipe-lines and oil and oil product tanks. Acoustic emission system for diagnostics of industrial objects has electroacoustic converter, amplification and filtration unit, analog-to-digital converter, module of processing and recording of numbered signals connected in series which makes it possible to receive acoustic signals whose sources are regions of progressing corrosion with simultaneous reception of acoustic signals caused by developing technological cracks in bottoms of tanks and reception of acoustic signals caused by leaks through specified defects without re-adjustment of system. System is fitted with voltage divider and second analog-to-digital converter connected in series and module integrating word lengths of numbered signals. Input of voltage divider is connected to output of amplification and filtration unit, outputs of first and second analog-to-digital converters are connected to inputs of mentioned module integrating word lengths of numbered signals and output of this module is connected to input of module of processing and recording of numbered signals. Effect: improved functional efficiency and productivity of system.